Utilization of scientific achievements and knowledge by national economy would be more effective if the way of cooperation between the University and industries was found. It could direct University towards the achievement of specific objectives aimed at upgrading products quality, their competitiveness and export potential.
But the reality is far from satisfactory. One of Europe's clear weaknesses is the lack of cooperation between universities and businesses, particularly across national borders.
In Poland, for example, only 6% of SMEs cooperate with some research unit, and only 17% of companies meet European innovation criteria, against 50% in the EU. In order to promote and support changes, the Parliament has passed an act to support innovation. The act is aimed at encouraging Polish companies to invest in R&D activities and new technologies, crucial for global competitiveness of the country’s economy. The act is also expected to contribute to better cooperation between research-education institutions and industry.
In Ukraine contacts between researchers, industry and business are seen as the catalyst of the process of Euro-integration and globalisation based on mutually beneficial collaboration, in favour of all the partners. The Centre of Industrial Expertise has been established at Donetsk National Technical University. It was founded with the help of money obtained by the USAID and British Council grants. There are a lot of advanced technical ideas which the University scientists have but the full-scale industrial experiments should be carried out to get the first batch of products. The industry is not much enthusiastic as to this part of work. There is the Techno Park ( the subdivision which is to deal with the problem) at the University but there are some problems with its validation. So the experience exchange and trainging in this field is extremely needed.
Russia has already had some achievements in this area, but some problems as well. One of them is insufficient utilization of scientific and technological potential of universities. Today the researchers of Vladimir University, for example, are capable of creating scientific products in the amount of $ 10 mln, but there are no mechanisms of using these developments on the one hand, and on the other - there are no investors wishing to invest their money in the production of new materials, technologies, equipment and devices. Besides, the acquisition of new knowledge, development of academic procedures, training qualified staff and organization of production activities have not been integrated so far; they develop on their own without being interacted with each other.
In regions such as Andalusia where the innovation system is totally unbalanced and the private R+D investment is ridiculous (around 20%), the University has to make important efforts to improve the quality and quantity of its collaborations with the industry. One of the greatest challenges facing universities and research centres is how to transfer the results of their research most efficiently.